Tuesday, December 09, 2014

Stryker Subsidiary Pleads Guilty to Selling Adulterated Devices, Former CEO of Subsidiary Pleads Guilty to Fraud, Stryker's Track Record Goes Unremarked

The US Thanksgiving Day parade is over, so it must be time for the march of legal settlements to begin again. Our next example was best described by Bloomberg and by NJcom, but brief articles from the Associated Press, Reuters, and the Wall Street Journal have also appeared.

The Basic Facts

The Bloomberg lede was,

Stryker Corp. OtisMed unit pleaded guilty to selling devices used in knee-replacement surgeries in September 2009 without regulatory approval and will pay more than $80 million to resolve the case.

The conduct in question was,

The company admitted it never obtained U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval to sell 18,000 custom-built devices used by surgeons from 2006 to 2009 to make accurate bone cuts to implant prosthetic knees. OtisMed applied for FDA approval in October 2008, and the agency said 13 months later the company hadn’t shown it was safe and effective. [OtisMed CEO Charlie] Chi then shipped 218 devices to surgeons, overruling his advisers and board.

Furthermore, in this case, there was some information about who actually did what,

After a conference call with OtisMed directors on Sept. 9, 2009, Chi talked to two employees about ways to hide the shipments from the FDA, including taking them to an off-site shipping location, using Chi’s personal Federal Express account, and backdating shipping documents, court records show.

The NJ.com report clarified to what charges the guilty pleas referred,

Charlie Chi, 45, pleaded guilty to three misdemeanor counts of fraud linked to the September 2009 shipment of 218 OtisMed devices to surgeons throughout the U.S., including 16 in New Jersey.


OtisMed, which was acquired by Stryker Corp., pleaded guilty to a felony charge of distributing adulterated medical devices into interstate commerce.... 

So, a company acquired by large medical device manufacturer Stryker admitted and pleaded guilty to charges that it fraudulantly marketed an unapproved device, and that this marketing was lead and facilitated by the company's CEO.  The CEO pleaded guilty to misdemeanor fraud charges.

The Penalties

Per Bloomberg,

OtisMed will pay a fine of $34.4 million and forfeit $5.16 million in a criminal case, while paying a civil fine of $41.2 million. The company pleaded guilty today in federal court in Newark, New Jersey, where former Chief Executive Officer Charlie Chi also pleaded guilty.

Chi has not yet been sentenced, but according to NJ.com,

Chi, of San Francisco, faces up to three years in prison when he’s sentenced on March 18, 2015.

Bloomberg noted that,

The $80 million payment is almost three times the total revenue that OtisMed got for all of the knees the company sold, according to Fishman.

However, the amount could also be compared to the approximate annual revenue of Stryker Corp, which was most recently about $8 billion per Google Finance, or its net income, about $1 billion.


OtisMed was barred from Medicare, Medicaid and all other federal health-care programs for 20 years. Stryker, based in Kalamazoo, Michigan, wasn’t barred.

This case was unusual in that a health care corporate CEO was actually charged and pleaded guilty to crimes connected to illegal marketing practices, and in that his company not only admitted wrongdoing and pleaded guilty, but also agreed to disbarment from federal programs.  However, by the time the case was thus decided, the CEO was no longer CEO, his company had been acquired by a larger health care corporation, and that corporation, while letting its new subsidiary agree to a fine and disbarment, was not itself disbarred from anything. 

Stryker's Track Record 

The Bloomberg noted that Stryker did not have unblemished track record,

In 2007, New Jersey’s U.S. attorney at the time, Chris Christie, reached an agreement with four makers of hip- and knee-implants that paid $310 million to settle U.S. claims they paid kickbacks to surgeons who used their products. Stryker, a fifth company, received a non-prosecution deal. Christie, a possible Republican presidential candidate in 2016, is now governor.

In fact, that year, we posted (here, here, here, and here) about the payments, often huge, that five manufacturers of prosthetic joints (Biomet, DePuy Orthopaedics (a unit of Johnson & Johnson), Stryker Orthopedics,a unit of Stryker Inc, Zimmer Holdings, and Smith & Nephew) revealed they made to orthopedic surgeons and various academic and other organizations. We also noted that some of the leadership of the major orthopedic societies have received substantial amounts from these companies, as have the societies themselves.

However, there is much more to the Stryker track record,

In 2013, we noted that Stryker paid $13.2 million to settle charges that it bribed doctors in various countries to use its devices, violating the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) (look here).

In 2012, we noted that Stryker paid a $15 million fine after pleading guilty to a federal count of misbranding a medical device. Government prosecutors alleged the company conspired to defraud surgeons into combining two of its products, contrary to their labeled usage, and possibly harming patients (look here).

In 2010, we noted that Stryker paid $1.35 million to settle charges that it marketed bone growth products without FDA approval (look here).

In 2009, we noted that two Stryker sales representatives pleaded guilty to charges they promoted off-label use of Stryker bone growth products although they knew such use could endanger patients (look here).  

So the larger corporation that paid fines that appeared large, but were actually small given its size, and that let its subsidiary and its subsidiary's former CEO otherwise take the raps, had a long track record of similarly questionable behavior.  That track record did not apparently inform the resolution of the current case.


So here we go again. A large medical device company resolved charges of wrongdoing by paying a fine that appears large to the common person, but in fact was small compared to its revenue.  The case was unusual in that the company did admit wrongdoing, but in a way that seemed to reflect the blame onto one of its subsidiaries.  The case was further unusual in that a CEO was charged and pleaded guilty, but it was not the CEO of the large corporation, but the former CEO of the acquired company.  The case was yet further unusual in that a company was disbarred from transactions with the federal government, but the company was just the subsidiary of the larger company, which otherwise could continue business as usual. 

Thus while the penalties meted out in this case seemed more severe than usual, on examination they left the big parent corporation relatively unscathed.  No one still in management at that corporation, including anyone involved in the acquisition of the wayward subsidiary, apparently will suffer any negative consequences.  Furthermore, that larger corporation turns out to have a substantial track record of previous misbehavior.  Yet that did not apparently affect the outcome of this case, and little of this track record was even reflected in the reporting of the current case.

While we have often - some might say ad infinitum - discussed the march of legal settlements by large health care organizations, and how these settlements seem to impose relatively small penalties on the corporations, and leave their hired managers untouched, these settlements seem to produce few echoes.  Like many other examples of unpleasantness that might reflect badly on the leaders of large health care organizations, even those who may have personally profited from the unpleasantness, they remain largely anechoic.  So we would urge the reporters who cover the next settlements by big health care organizations at least look to see if the organizations had been involved in similar settlements in the past

Finally, as we have said all to often,...   The failure of the current limp legal efforts against such corruption is evident by how many corporations have become ethical repeat offenders.  Pervasive bad behavior by large health care organizations has got to be a major cause of our ongoing health care dysfunction.  So, to really deter bad behavior, those who authorized, directed or implemented bad behavior must be held accountable. As long as they are not, expect the bad behavior to continue.


Afraid said...

I am one of those who say HCR describes the problems created by too much money of money in medicine ad infinitum. Not to say HCR should stop standing on a soap box, by all mean, I hope things change and the money comes out of medicine and the sharks who circle for the blood go away somewhere else.

I have also heard it said here at HCR that those in healthcare deserve some of the blame for this problem. Many folks in healthcare know better than to allow what they see everyday, and many do little if nothing about it but complain amongst themselves.

These companies could not get away with what they do without accomplices in medicine. Doctors have sworn a Hippocratic Oath whereas the business folks have not. I have heard business people say that the doctor has the final call, and they do, but the system admittedly puts strong coercion on them.

Does that mean we should expect them to succumb to this coercion? We have held doctors in high regard, paid them generally well, and thank them for their help, but you MDs chose this path, a higher calling so to say. Seeing doctors who squirm around for cash is like watching a dishonest preacher or a cop on the take, it’s very disturbing.

On the other hand, we don't expect much from business folk as far as medical ethics goes, heck, business folk invented advertising after all. Business folk have traditionally not been held as high a regard as doctors, not on the average paid as well I think.

We don't expect business people to be altruistic in any real sense of the word. We do expect that from doctors and they have sworn to be so.

I am very forgiving to all involved, I don’t need to hear mea culpas or heartfelt conversion stories, but seriously, doctors heal thyselves, thy reputations and thy practices.

Stand together! Thank you HCR!

Steve Lucas said...

I am sure that with a little legal slight of hand these products will continue to ship, possibly under a new name and corporate entity.

I in no way wish to minimize the loss to all of the families involved in this incident:


But I did find it interesting that the pilot and passengers worked in the health care field. This is a very nice, very easy to fly small aircraft, but also very expensive to purchase and maintain.

Today many large corporations have given up their corporate jets in favor of commercial airlines for appearance and cost savings, the same cannot be said for health care.

Steve Lucas