The main points of the paper are its summaries of the basic elements of "effective ethics policies."
First, such a policy
- must first have unequivocal authority and the endorsement of boards and senior management, and must be:
o founded on the organisation’s core values, mandate, and ethical principle
o developed in consultation with those affected by it
o realistically achievable
o written in plain language, coherent with other policies, and easily available
o clearly understood by staff, and by other stakeholders
o consistent with the organisation’s policies on rewards and sanctions
o regularly reviewed and evaluated with all stakeholders
o universally applied, and transparently enforced.
The main content areas might include such "major areas of ethical risk" as:
o financial management and accountability standards
o internal and external audit processes
o professional ethics, conduct, and conflict of interest standards
o fair treatment rules for staff and clients
o processes for the prevention of fraud and other abuse of trust
o integrity mechanisms governing proper decision-making
o provision of transparent information to stakeholders
o complaints and whistleblower disclosure processes
o principled policy dispute processes
o transparent and objective evaluation mechanisms.
So, specific policies should include the following functional elements:
o a code of conduct/ethics based on the organisation’s core values
o professional practice standards interpreting the code’s principles
o procedures for managing conflict of interest situations (including the registration of relevant interests and assets of decision makers)
o procedures for offering and accepting gifts and business courtesies
o criteria for the proper use of organisational assets and authority
o prohibition of harassment and discrimination in the workplace
o criteria for protected reporting of unethical or illegal behaviour
o rights of clients to obtain service, including complaint procedures for failure to meet standards
o obligations for accountability and transparency,and information provision
o standards for dealing with confidential and privileged information
o constraints on ancillary and post-separation employment
o standards for providing reasons for administrative decisions.
Also the policies should include:
• A commitment to training staff in the full range of ethics-related activities. Training will improve personal awareness and strengthen the ability to define and manage improper conduct, whether by co-workers, managers, or external stakeholders.
The range of training themes should include the organisation’s integrity system, specific anticorruption measures, harassment-free workplaces, non-discrimination principles, financial management and audit, integrity in procurement practices, donor relations, personal and institutional conflict of interest, accountability, responsibility, procedural fairness, and strategic problem-solving.
• Policies and procedures for regular management reporting to boards and executives, in particular to enable monitoring of matters which may be of particular concern from time to time.
• Independent, external scrutiny of policies provide an important resource for boards and executives for ensuring that espoused core values and actual behaviours are aligned, and to identify areas of policy and management practice requiring
• Policies and procedures for protected reporting of improper conduct, both to enhance worker and stakeholder confidence in the integrity of an organisation, and to provide avenues for early detection of inappropriate behaviour. Genuine
whistleblowing must be effectively endorsed, and effectively protected, to ensure the organisation’s credibility.
• Procedures for the sanctioning of improper conduct and failure to meet relevant standards by staff, structured so as to enhance management’s capacity to deal effectively with ethical issues in the workplace.
Such policies cannot be considered ethical panaceas, but in my humble opinion (and based, I believe, on at least a little cognitive psychology), visible, reasonable, clear ethics policies could reduce the sort of bad behavior that Health Care Renewal often discusses on the part of leaders of major health care not-for-profit organizations and NGOs.
So, those of you who work for or are otherwise affiliated with a not-for-profit university, medical school, hospital, academic medical center, medical organization, disease advocacy organization, or insurance company/ managed care organization might want to go through the exercise of answering these questions:
1 - Does your organization have anything that resembles an ethics policy?
2 - If so, which of the characteristics listed above does it have?
3 - Which of the content areas listed above does it include?
4 - Which of the functional and additional elements listed above does it include?
If much is missing, is there an obvious reason for what was omitted? If the policy seems poorly characterized or incomplete, why should it not be improved? Would you feel comfortable suggesting improvements? If not, why not, and what does that say about the organization?