The Summary and Allegations
The basic summary...
Daiichi Sankyo agreed to pay $39 million to the U.S. federal government and state Medicaid programs to settle allegations of paying kickbacks to physicians to prescribe several of its drugs.
The allegations were ...
that Daiichi initiated different speaker programs and paid doctors kickbacks – in the form of honoraria and meals, among other things – that were labeled as speaking fees between 2004 and 2011. The speaker programs, however, were problematic, according to the U.S. Department of Justice.
How so? The feds allege that some physicians spoke only to his or her own office staff; the audience sometimes included the physician’s spouse; payments were made to physicians even when participants took turns 'speaking' about duplicative topics at dinners paid for by the drug maker; and the dinners were lavish and, sometimes, exceeded internal Daiichi cost limitations of $140 a person, according to the settlement agreement.
Note that the defenders of physician - industry "collaboration" often defend payments such as speaking fees as necessary "conflicts of interest" to encourage health care "innovation." Innovation does not seem the right word for the conduct in this case, and the payments seem to be more than just "conflicts of interest." Nonetheless the defenders often argue that at best, such "conflicts of interest" only need to be disclosed, not limited.
The drugs whose prescription were allegedly being encouraged by the kickbacks were...
the Welchol cholesterol-lowering medication and the Benicar, Azor and Tribenzor high blood pressure pills
Details of the Penalties, or Lack Thereof
This settlement followed the usual choreography. It included a corporate integrity agreement...
which stipulates that the drug maker must implement compliance programs to prevent such illegal practices from occurring in the future.
It did not apparently include any obligation for the company to admit wrongdoing, much less plead guilty to anything. Instead, a company executive offered the de rigeur statement...
Ken Keller, who heads Daiichi Sankyo commercial operations in the U.S., says 'we are pleased to have finalized these agreements and remain focused on our core mission of helping people live healthy and meaningful lives. We are committed to being an ethical, trusted and respected company, and constantly improving how we operate is part of our culture.'
The irony induced by juxtaposing the present tense "we are committed to being... ethical" and the substance of the charges was apparently lost on Mr Keller.
Finally, no individual who authorized, directed, or provided the kickbacks apparently suffered any negative consequences, much less fines or other legal sanctions.
Summary and Comments
Here comes the New Year, just like the old year. I have lost count of how many posts we have published about legal settlements of cases in which drug, biotechnology, or device companies were alleged to have given physicians kickbacks to prescribe, use or implant their products.
During the last half of 2014, similar cases in our archives include -
November, 2014 - Biotronik settled charges of kickbacks for use of its devices
November, 2014 - Teva settled charges it induced physicians use of drugs by payments to physician
October, 2014 - Biomet settles charges it gave kickbacks for use of its bone growth products
October, 2014 - DaVita settles charges it gave kickbacks for referral of patients to its dialysis clinics
Such kickbacks are obviously unethical, and fit the Transparency International definition of corruption, "abuse of entrusted power for private gain." Physicians are entrusted to make decisions on behalf of patients in the patients' best interests, not for the sake of payments from commercial firms.
Nonetheless, as in the cases of legal settlements of other charges involving other kinds of unethical behavior by big health care organizations, the consequences for these organizations seem to be slaps on the wrist with wet noodles. Although the fines meted out may seem big to regular folk whose income has been stagnant for years, they are usually small compared to the organizations' revenues. In any case, the fines are paid out of general corporate funds, and so ultimately by stockholders, employees, and perhaps customers, clients, or patients who had nothing to do with the kickbacks. On the other hand, those who actually profited from the kickbacks usually walk away with no consequences. Thus it seems unlikely that these sorts of fines in the absence of penalties assessed against individuals deter future bad behavior. We have discussed these problems frequently in our posts on legal settlements.
The corporate integrity and/or deferred prosecution agreements deserve a bit more comment at this juncture. They only seem to ask the company to refrain in the future from doing anything really nasty, but rarely incorporate serious scrutiny or any meaningful consequences should the company do something nasty.
In fact, the pioneering use of these agreements by current New Jersey Governor Chris Christie when he was a US Attorney lead to charges that they were a form of "shakedown," rather than justice, and could be used to do favors for political cronies installed as the monitors for the agreement. A 2014 article in the New York Observer provided examples of health care related settlements authored by Mr Chistie,
In 2007, the Star-Ledger broke the news that John Ashcroft, the former attorney general who had been Mr. Christie’s boss at the DOJ, received a '$52 million payday' for serving as an outside monitor to medical device company Zimmer Holdings. [See our summary of the Zimmer case including this deferred prosecution agreement here.] Another DPA led to Bristol-Myers Squibb agreeing to spend $5 million to fund a business ethics program at Seton Hall University, where Mr. Christie had attended law school. [See our 2005 summary of the Bristol-Myers-Squibb case involving this deferred prosecution agreement here.] And then there was the mother of all eyebrow-raising DPA paydays.
When the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, one of the largest medical schools in the country, was revealed in 2005 to be a veritable parking garage for politically connected no-show jobs, Mr. Christie tapped an old friend, mentor and predecessor, former New Jersey U.S. Attorney Herb Stern, to serve as the school’s federal monitor. [We posted extensively on the UMDNJ case here.] Mr. Stern is a giant in New Jersey legal circles—he is the subject of the book Tiger In the Court—but his fees after his return to private practice had raised eyebrows. The former CEO of Qwest, Joseph Nacchio, alleged that Mr. Stern wildly overbilled him for 'duplicative and unnecessary work,' including sending seven attorneys to attend a court appearance and even charging thousands for staff breakfasts, in-room movies and underwear. According to The New York Times, Mr. Stern’s firm 'ultimately billed the state for more than $10 million.' A couple of days after Mr. Stern landed the contract, Mr. Christie hired Samuel Stern, the son of Herb Stern, despite what were reported by The Star-Ledger to be 'objections from nearly every assistant U.S. attorney who interviewed him.' A couple days after that, Mr. Christie announced his own resignation as U.S. attorney.
Note further that most of these legal settlements seem uninformed by any previous bad behavior of the organization or the people involved. Many of the organizations subject to these settlements have already made previous settlements, sometimes many of them. Some of them have already signed corporate integrity or deferred prosecution agreements. Relevant to the current case, Daiichi Sankyo's Ranbaxy subsidiary paid a $500 million settlement for selling adulterated products in 2013 (see our blog post here).
Finally, note that the settlements made by large health care corporations often seem effete compared to those imposed on smaller organizations or individuals. Some recent examples appear in blog posts here and here. In fact, the US Attorney responsible for the current Daiichi Sankyo settlement is Ms Carmen Ortiz. In 2014, Ms Ortiz was responsible for the little ($6 million) Biomet settlement above, constructed without regard to several larger settlements made by the same company. In fact, we had posted that Ms Ortiz was involved in settling three seemingly big previous cases, involving allegations that Forest Pharmaceuticals promoted Celexa in adolescents despite the drug's likely dangers to them, GlaxoSmithKline used misleading drug packaging, also likely endangering patients, and St Jude Medical gave kickbacks to doctors to induce them to implant medical devices. All cases were settled with fines, but again no individuals suffered any negative consequences. However, in contrast, Ms Ortiz was also the prosecutor who proved how tough she was when she threatened activist Aaron Swartz with serious prison time for alleged computer fraud, driving Mr Swartz to suicide.
So, quelle surprise, the Kabuki play that is regulation of and law enforcement for large health care organizations goes on. As our society is being increasingly divided into a huge majority in increasingly difficult economic circumstances and a small and increasingly rich minority, it also seems to be increasingly divided into little people who may be ruined by lawsuits, and imprisoned for even minor infractions, and big people who have impunity.
True health care reform would hold leaders of health care organizations accountable for their organizations' behavior, and its effects on patients and health care professionals.
For a more humorous take on Mr Christie's career, see this performance by Jimmy Fallon and Bruce Springsteen, "Governor Christie Traffic Jam" -